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Shaft structure design and classification


The shaft (shaft) is a cylindrical object that goes through the middle of the bearing or the middle of the wheel or the middle of the gear, but there are also a few of them that are square. A shaft is a mechanical part that supports and revolves with a rotating part to transmit motion, torque or bending moment. Generally, it is in the shape of a metal round rod, and each segment can have different diameters. The parts that make rotary motion in the machine are mounted on the shaft.
High Precision Stainless Steel Solid Shafts
High Precision Stainless Steel Solid Shafts

structural design

The structural design of the shaft is an important step in determining the reasonable shape and overall structural dimensions of the shaft. It consists of the type, size and position of the parts installed on the shaft, the fixing method of the parts, the nature, direction, size and distribution of the load, the type and size of the bearing, the blank of the shaft, the manufacturing and assembly process, installation and transportation, and the shaft. deformation and other factors. The designer can design according to the specific requirements of the shaft. If necessary, several plans can be compared to select the design plan. The following are the general design principles of the shaft structure: 1. Save material, reduce weight, and try to use equal strength dimensions or The cross-sectional shape with a large section coefficient; 2. It is easy to accurately locate, stabilize, assemble, disassemble and adjust the parts on the shaft; 3. Adopt various structural measures to reduce stress concentration and improve strength; 4. It is convenient for processing and manufacturing and guarantees precision.

Axis Classification

Common shafts can be divided into crankshafts, straight shafts, flexible shafts, solid shafts, hollow shafts, rigid shafts, and flexible shafts (flexible shafts) according to the structural shape of the shaft. The straight shaft can be further divided into: ① Rotating shaft, which bears both bending moment and torque during work, is the most common shaft in machinery, such as the shaft in various reducers. ②The mandrel is used to support the rotating parts and only bears the bending moment without transmitting the torque. Some mandrels rotate, such as the axles of railway vehicles, and some mandrels do not rotate, such as the shafts supporting pulleys. ③The transmission shaft is mainly used to transmit torque without bearing the bending moment, such as the long optical axis in the moving mechanism of the crane, the drive shaft of the car, etc. The material of the shaft is mainly carbon steel or alloy steel, and ductile iron or alloy cast iron can also be used. The working ability of the shaft generally depends on the strength and stiffness, and also depends on the vibration stability at high speed. 

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